To Understand Soybean Quality Issues
On October 15, 2018
To Understand Soybean Quality Issues
In most of the region, 2018 has brought persistent moisture and prolonged warmth to our fields. Extension Plant Pathologist Alyssa Collins explains if you are seeing alarmingly high levels of discolored beans in your bin, it is not because you are a bad farmer. Our crops have simply been experiencing the perfect conditions for seed and pod rot development for a long time.
Several factors have come together to make this so. Fungi love moisture and mild temperatures. The weather conditions for the organisms that cause seed rots have been very conducive. In these situations, we say that disease pressure is high. So, during this fall, the fungi that we typically see some of, and fungi that we almost never see, have been able to continue growing and invading plant tissues.
It is important to remember a mature plant is a dead plant. Once soybean plants mature and turn brown, they are no longer among the “living”. This means that some of the defense mechanisms that protect the plant from infection when it is growing will no longer be active. The longer a mature plant stands in the field, the more vulnerable the seeds and pods will be to disease-causing and opportunistic organisms.
Additionally soybeans take up water naturally. As anyone who harvests beans knows, once they are mature, they can still take on moisture readily. Every time a seed takes up water and dries down again, it becomes more susceptible to invaders. If a bean swells enough, it can even split its pod open, leading to shatter and allowing additional water in which allows for more fungal growth.
Other important factors are planting timing and maturity group. All the above factors have led many to notice this final observation. As our planting system encourages earlier plantings of beans at various maturities, we may find that earlier planted fields have a different outcome than later plantings. For example, early planting works in our favor by allowing plants to build a canopy with the potential of having more nodes and pods than late planted soybeans, and sometimes it allows our crop to miss a dry spell at a critical growth stage. However, this year it seems that earlier planted beans are bearing the brunt of the harvest quality issues. This is probably a result of earlier maturation and the weather conditions keeping combines in the shed, leading to a longer time in the field before harvest. Other weather timing issues probably also play a role.
Now that we know what is causing these quality issues, what can be done? The good news is none of these fungi are associated with toxin production. So, you can feed these beans without concern for poisoning your animals. Do consult with your nutritionist to understand how nutritional value may change.
Be sure to dry harvested beans down to 13% moisture to halt the growth and spread of the fungi in storage. While they do not produce toxins, it is still important to preserve the quality you have.
Now that temperatures are cooling, these fungal problems will begin to slow in their progression. However, the damage already done will not get better. Harvest as soon as you can get the material through your combine and apply air and heat if possible.
Check with your buyer to understand their standards for payment this year before you harvest. Each elevator has different thresholds for acceptance and dockage in relation to damaged beans. Knowing this prior to harvest will allow you to assess your situation. If you suspect an unsaleable crop, contact your insurance agent. Do not try to take your own samples for an insurance claim.
For additional information on these and other disease issues check this site: https://cropprotectionnetwork.org .
To Learn About Research On Controlling Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs
Extension Entomologist John Tooker reminds us of the large populations of brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSB) that we endured in our homes and fields a few years back. For the most part, large populations of BMSB have settled to the south of Pennsylvania, but the insect species remains here and will likely continue to be occasionally problematic for farmers.
Because of it damage potential, researchers continue to study BMSB and options for controlling it. In 2014, a tiny parasitoid wasp was discovered in North America that attacks BMSB eggs. The parasitoid, known as the samurai wasp, was unintentionally introduced to the United States, but now it is attacking stink bug populations and have been reported attacking BMSB eggs in ten U.S. states, including Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, and Virginia. Thus far, most detections of the samurai wasp have been in woodlands and not in agricultural systems, perhaps due to higher abundance of nectar in these more natural habitats. Adult wasps will feed on nectar, and wasps that have access to a reliable source of sugar can live longer and provide better control of their hosts.
To understand the potential of improving control of BMSB, extension entomologists based at Rutgers and University of Missouri are planning to test the value of insectary strips near crop fields and orchards to determine if these plantings help bolster samurai wasp populations and improve the control they can provide. The researchers would like grower feedback in the short survey below to help advise their research goals. The survey will be available until October 19, 2018.
Please consider taking a minute or two to answer their short survey (8 multiple-choice questions) which is found here:
Quote Of The Week: “Teaching children to count is fine, but teaching what counts is better.” Amish Proverb by Suzanne Woods Fisher