To Seed Fall Forage Crops

On August 25, 2020

To Seed Fall Forage Crops


Pasture managers and hay producers have a window of opportunity in the late summer and early fall to improve existing or establish new stands through seeding.

Throughout Pennsylvania, forage producers should seed cool-season perennial forages between mid-August to mid-Sept.  The weather is still warm enough to encourage establishment while beating the potential extreme temperatures that settle into our state by mid-fall.  September rains encourage quick establishment and the warm days boost growth. When renovating or establishing pastures or hay fields, producers need to be paying close attention to two things, seeding depth and seed-to-soil contact. More failures in establishing forages are the result of improper seeding depth than any other cause! If seeding depth isn’t correct then you might as well not bother to plant. Forage seeds have a very small supply of stored energy to support the seedling until it emerges and begins making its own energy. Seeds placed too deep are not likely to emerge. Optimum seeding depth varies with soil type (sandy, clay, or loam), soil moisture, time of seeding, and firmness of seedbed but generally is not more than 3/8 inch deep. A rule-of-thumb is that “5-10% of the forages seeds planted should be on the surface after seeding”.

Ensuring that seeds are placed at the proper depth requires a firm seedbed. It is extremely difficult to accurately regulate seeding depth if the soil is soft and fluffy. Here is a rule-of-thumb regarding soil firmness: “On properly firmed soil, an adult’s footprint should not be deeper than ½ inch”. Forage seeds should be covered with enough soil to provide moist conditions for germination but not so deep that the shoot cannot reach the surface.  Proper seed-to-soil contact can be tricky when no-tilling into an established stand in an effort to restore and improve forage stands and special attention should be paid to seeding depth.

Forage seeds need to absorb at least their own weight in water before germination begins. Unless the forage seed has been planted in saturated soils, the water generally moves into the seed from surrounding soil. Adequate seed-to-soil contact ensures maximum water movement into the seed in the shortest time. Field situations (cloddy or loose soil) that do not promote good seed-to-soil contact generally result in extended germination periods and sporadic emergence. The use of press wheels on a grain drill or cultipacking after seeding can improve seed-to-soil contact.

To Be Aware of the Dangers of Silo Gas

Silage harvest has begun in southeast and central PA. One concern related to this season is the danger of silo gas. Davis Hill, Program Director for the Managing Farm Emergencies program at Penn State wrote the following excellent article on dealing with silo gas.


During the natural fermentation process, several gasses are produced within the silo. The most concerning gas in conventional silos is nitrogen dioxide, often referred to as silo gas. Soon after filling the silo, nitrogen oxide begins to form, peaking in one to two days after filling. However, silo gas can last for up to 10 days after the fresh forage is chopped and blown into the silo.


Silo gas can have a bleach-like odor and under certain conditions can be visible as a fog from a distance. If the gas is highly concentrated, the fog will appear to be yellow to reddish brown in color and the silage surface, silo wall, base of the chute and other structures of the silo may be stained (yellow, orange, reddish) from the gas. This gas is heavier than air, therefore it will settle at the surface of the silage instead of rising to the top of the silo and exiting through the fill door.

The highest concentration of gas is typically located at the silage surface, which is the area where a person will be going if they need to enter the silo for any reason. If a silo door is open near the surface of the silage, the high concentration of gas (heavier than air) could exit the silo through this door, and flow down the chute causing it to settle at the base of the silo in the feed room or flow into the barn area. This dangerous buildup of silo gas can occur if there is little ventilation in the barn area.


The presence and concentration of silo gas depends on the storage structure and quality of the chopped forage material. Crops that have received nitrogen fertilizer and those crops that have suffered prolonged drought or especially prolonged drought conditions followed by rain just prior to harvest often lead to high gas production. Stunted corn may be harvested early for silage causing high levels of nitrates leading to higher than normal concentrations of silo gas produced during the ensiling process. Operators need to be aware of this and take precautions.


Precautions include assuring all spaces at the base of the silos are well ventilated, silo doors are closed well above the level of the silage surface, stay out of the silo for three weeks after filling the silo and always ventilate the silo with the silo blower for at least 20 minutes prior to entry (only effective if the silo is over half full). Consider leaving the lower 10-12 inches of the stalk in the field (chop higher than normal) because this part of the plant may have the highest level of accumulated nitrates.


Individual reactions to silo gas depend on the concentration of inhaled gas and length of exposure. Very high concentrations of gas will cause immediate distress resulting in a person collapsing and dying within minutes. When gas levels are this high, typically the individual will not be able to withstand the symptoms felt and will quickly vacate the area.


Milder concentrations could cause upper respiratory congestion, watery eyes, cough, difficulty breathing, fatigue, nausea, etc. If symptoms are mild, an individual may stay in the area to finish the job making the effects of silo gas worse. Effects can last for several hours in the body, causing symptoms to become progressively worse over the course of a day or two.


If a person experiences any of these symptoms when inside or near a freshly filled silo, they should immediately exit to fresh air and discontinue the task. They should immediately go to their doctor or hospital emergency room and report that they have been exposed to “silo gas poisoning”. One after-effect of silo gas poisoning is fluid in the lungs leading to chemical pneumonia and possibly death if not treated promptly. The effects of fluid filling the lungs may not present itself until several hours after the exposure—which may be too late.


Quote Of The Week: “Do more than is required of you.” General George S Patton